Cultural Competency Resources

American Dental Education Association. Strategies to enhance diversity. Washington, DC: American Dental Education, 2006.

American Medical Student Association (AMSA) Foundation. Cultural Competency Curricular Guidelines for Medical and Dental Schools. Retrieved on 3/10/12 from

Association of American Medical Colleges. Diversity research forum: tools for assessing and measuring diversity in medical education. Washington, DC: Association of American Medical Colleges, 2005.

Betancourt J. (2006). Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: What is the Role of Academic Medicine? Academic Medicine 81(9): 788-92.

Bollinger L. Why diversity matters. Chronicle Higher Educ 2007; 53: B20.

Boyle, J. S. (2003). Culture, family, and community. In M.M. Andrews & J.S. Boyle (Eds.) Transcultural concepts in nursing care. St. Louis: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Mutha S, Allen C, Welch M. (2002). Toward Culturally Competent Care: A toolbox for teaching communication strategies. California Healthcare Foundation (CHCF).

Campinha-Bacote, J. (2003). The process of cultural competence in the delivery of health-care services: A culturally competent model of care (4th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates

Campinha-Bacote, A. & Campinha-Bacote, J. (2009). Extending a model of cultural competence in health care delivery to the field of health law. Journal of Nursing Law, 12(2), 36-44.

Cultural Competency in Medical Education: A Guidebook for Schools. Retrieved on 3/13/12 from

Formicola, AJ, Klyvert M, McIntosh J, Thompson A, Davis M, Cangialosi T. (2003) Creating an environment for diversity in dental schools: one school’s approach. J Dent Educ 67(5): 491-9.

Formicola, A., J. Stavisky, et al. (2003). Cultural competency: dentistry and medicine learning from one another.  J Dent Educ 67(8): 869.

Gay G. (2002). Preparing for Culturally Responsive Teaching. J of Teacher Educ 53(2): 106-16.

Haden NK, Andrieu SC, Chadwick DG, Chmar JE, Cole JR, George MC, et al. The dental education environment. J Dent Educ 2006; 70(12): 1265-70.

Haden NK, Catalanotto FA, Alexander CJ, Bailit H, Battrell A, Broussard J, et al. Improving the oral health status of all Americans: roles and responsibilities of academic dental institutions. The report of the ADEA president’s commission. J Dent Educ 2003; 67(5): 563-83.

Hewlett ER, Davidson PL, Nakazono TK, Baumeister SE, Carreon dc, Freed JR. Effect of school environment on dental students’ perceptions of cultural competency curricula and preparedness to care for diverse populations. J Dent Educ 2007; 71(6): 810-8.

HRSA: Transforming the Face of Health Professions through Cultural and Linguistic Competence Education: The Role of the HRSA Centers of Excellence. Retrieved on 3/13/12 from

Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee on understanding and eliminating racial and ethnic disparities in health care (2002). Unequal treatment: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Retrieved on 3/10/12 from

Kleinman, A. & Benson, P. (2006). Anthropology in the clinic: the problem of cultural competency and how to fix it. PLoS Med 3 (10), e294. Retrieved on 3/12/12 from:

Ladson-Billings G.  (1995) Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal 32 (3): 465-491.

McAllister G, Irvine J. (2000) Cross Cultural Competency and Multicultural Teacher Education. Review of Educational Research 70 (3): 3-24.

Novak K, Whitehead A, Close J (2004). Students’ Perceived Importance of Diversity Exposure and Training in Dental Education. J of Dent Educ 68(3): 355-360.

Office of Minority Health: A Cultural Competency E-Learning Continuing Education Program for Oral Health Professions. To be released soon.

Rowland, M., C. Bean, et al. (2006). A snapshot of cultural competency education in US dental schools. J Dent Educ 70(9): 982.

Rubin R (2004). Developing Cultural Competence and Social Responsibility in Preclinical Dental Students. J Dent Educ 68(4): 460-467.

Sashett B, Royal P, Ross T. (2010) Introduction of a Cultural Training Experience into Interdisciplinary Health Science Education Program. J of Allied Health 39(2): e55-60.

Selig S, Tropiano E, Greene-Morton E. Teaching Cultural Competence to Reduce Health Disparities. Health Promotion Practice 7(3): 247s-55s.

Siantz ML, Meleis A (2007). Integrating Cultural Competence Into Nursing Educaiton and Practice: 21st Century Action Steps. J of Transcultural Nursing 18: 86s-90s.

Sinkford J, Valachovic R, Harrison S. (2006). Continued Vigilance: Enhancing Diversity in Dental Education. J Dent Educ 70(2): 199-203.

Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC). Teaching Tolerance retrieved on 3/9/12 from

The California Endowment: A Manager’s Guide to Cultural Competence Education for Health Care Professionals; retrieved on 3/10/12 from

The California Endowment:  Principles and Recommended Standards for Cultural Competence Education of Health Care Professionals; retrieved on 3/11/12 from

Tulman, L, Watts, R. (2008). Development and Testing of the Blueprint for integration of cultural competence in the curriculum questionnaire. J of Prof Nursing 24 (3): 161-6.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Minority Health (March, 2001). National Standards on Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS). Retrieved on 3/12/12 from

Wagner, J.A. and D. Redford-Badwal (2008). Dental students’ beliefs about culture in patient care: self-reported knowledge and importance. J Dent Educ 72 (5): 571-576.

Wlodkowski R, Ginsberg M.  (1995). A Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching. Educational Leadership. Retrieved on 3/9/12 from